Testing Frameworks Review Summary

What we did

To identify and synthesise guidance on best practices in selecting, developing, and implementing technological solutions to aged care problems we undertook a rapid literature review of English language peer-reviewed journal articles and grey literature using iterative searches in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google Advanced. The review involved three phases.  

Phase 1. Finding frameworks for integrating technology into health and aged care 

We first searched for well-established frameworks for developing, testing, and implementing technologies in health and aged care settings. Eligible frameworks needed to be broad and flexible enough to accommodate different types of technologies and not just focused on a single type and had to be adaptable or applicable to the aged care context.  

Phase 2. Mapping domains across frameworks 

Once we had identified eligible frameworks, we extracted the domains from each and mapped them against each other to identify areas of overlap and uniqueness. We assigned new names to common domains to ensure they were inclusive of all frameworks and relevant to the aged care sector. These overarching domains became our themes.    

Phase 3. Mapping research findings to domains 

We then conducted iterative database and grey literature searches for aged or healthcare research studies and reports addressing each of our themes. Using NVivo software, we coded relevant content within each included report against our predefined themes.  

What we found

We identified two frameworks that provide a structured approach to introducing technology to the health or aged care workplace: the NASSS Framework [1] and the CeHRes Roadmap. [2] We identified five themes by integrating the two frameworks. These themes are:  

  • Technology needs assessment
  • Creating a business case
  • Developing new products*
  • Implementing technology*
  • Monitoring use over time. 

* Themes coming soon

The table available in the accompanying PDF (below) lists these themes and shows how each was informed by the individual framework domains. Literature searches on each theme topic identified a total of 127 research reports, websites, blogs, eBooks, and articles of relevance. We used relevant content within these documents to round out the more conceptual guidance within each domain with more pragmatic considerations based on real-world testing and implementation projects. 


The evidence themes developed from our review form a package of generalised guidance for the aged care sector. However, many of the considerations covered are intertwined and overlapping, suggesting the different domains should be treated as steps in a flexible, but integrated process. It is hoped that this guidance will support individuals and organisations involved in technology decisions in developing a culture of continuous improvement and innovation in aged care.

Connect to PubMed Evidence


  1. Greenhalgh T, Wherton J, Papoutsi C, Lynch J, Hughes G, A'Court C, et al. Beyond adoption: A new framework for theorizing and evaluating nonadoption, abandonment, and challenges to the scale-up, spread, and sustainability of health and care technologies. J Med Internet Res. 2017;19(11):e367.  
  2. van Gemert-Pijnen JE, Nijland N, van Limburg M, Ossebaard HC, Kelders SM, Eysenbach G, et al. A holistic framework to improve the uptake and impact of ehealth technologies. J Med Internet Res. 2011;13(4):e111.